Porijeklo Taiji Quan-a / The origins of Taiji Quan (augmented English version below)

Postoji pet glavnih stilova Taiji Quan-a koji danas postoje. Svaki stil je dobio ime po porodici iz koje je potekao:
Čen stil, porijeklom iz Čen Vang Tinga (1580-1660)
Yang stil, porijeklom iz Čena preko Yang Lu Čana (1799-1872)
Vu (Hao) stil, porijeklom iz Yanga i Čena preko Vu Ju-hsianga (1812-1880)
Vu stil (mali krug), porijeklom iz Yanga preko Vu Čuan Lua (1834-1902)
Sun stil, porijeklom iz Yanga, Vu (Hao), Ksinii i Bagua – Sun Lutanga (1861-1932)

Pošto je Yang stil kojim se ja bavim, evo još nekoliko detalja o njegovom porijeklu i razvoju.

Yang Lu Čan je radio kao sluga u porodici Čen i tamo naučio Taiji. Kasnije je naučio i druge borilačke vještine koje su takođe imale uticaja na vrstu Taijija koju je on razvio. Njegov unuk, Yang Čeng Fu (1883-1936), je dodatno dotjerao formu, a njegov stil od 85 položaja (ili 108, zavisno od toga kako su položaji grupisani i kako se broje) je taj koji je postepeno postao najpopularniji u svijetu.

Yang Čeng Fu je napisao dvije knjige o tom stilu: Primjena Metoda Taiji Quan-a (1931), kao i Suština i primjena Taiji Quan-a (1934). Ovu drugu je na engleski jezik preveo Luj Svajm 2005. godine (Blue Snake Books, Berkli, Kalifornija).

Fu Zongven (1903-1994), učenik Yang Čeng Fua koji je sklopvši brak postao i član porodice Yang, je takođe napisao veoma uticajnu knjigu, Ovladavanje Yang Stila Taiji Quan-a, koju je na engleski preveo Luj Svajm (1999; North Atlantic Books, Berkli, Kalifornija).

Prema drugoj školi mišljenja, porijeklo Taiji Quan-a datira od Džang Sanfenga, taoističkog sveštenika iz trinaestog vijeka za kojeg se vjeruje da je razvio taoistički ,,unutrašnji“ stil borilačkih vještina, za razliku od ,,spoljašnjeg“ stila budističke Šaolin tradicije borilačkih vještina.
Međutim, takve tvrdnje se ponekad odbacuju na osnovu nedostataka istorijskih dokaza.
Dva detaljna i veoma dobro istražena akademska članka o spornim korijenima Taiji Quan-a se mogu naći na adresi:
http://literati-tradition.com/zhang_sanfeng_camp.html
i
http://literati-tradition.com/chen_camp.html

Koju god teoriju da neko preferira, treba imati na umu da je kineska civilizacija stara 5.000 godina, a mnogi principi koji podupiru Taiji Quan mogu biti isto toliko stari – u svakom slučaju sigurno stari koliko i pojam jina i janga.

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I wrote the article above in 2011, and it has been available on our blog since then at https://crnagorataiji.wordpress.com/biblioteka/

Upon re-reading today – four years later -, there is nothing I would change. The last paragraph still reflects what I think:

“Whichever theory one favours, it should be borne in mind that Chinese civilization is almost 5,000 years old, and many of the principles that underpin Taiji Quan might be just as old, – in any case certainly as old as the concept of yin yang.”

The reason I am reposting some of that article today is that I realize many of you are curious about the origins of the art that we practise together, which is really great. I can only encourage you to continue to think critically.
You do not need to adopt either “the Chen version” or “the Zhang Sanfeng version / Wudang version”.
In some ways, the debate between these two “camps” is comparable to the dispute raging between creationists and evolutionists in the Western world, but in some ways only.
When it comes to the origins of Taiji, it is useful to be able to tell the difference between historical facts on the one hand, and myths and legends on the other.

My personal stance on this is that opting either for “the Chen version” or “the Zhang Sanfeng version / Wudang version” is somehow choosing to be dogmatic. Some of the truth may lie there, but much of the truth lies elsewhere. Chinese martial arts have a long history, and a lot of evidence suggests that they are as old as Chinese culture and civilization itself.

In the hope that they will help you better understand the history of Taiji, and also to tell the difference between fact and fiction, here are two articles I have found useful:

1) Legend in Tai Chi

2) Taiji and Daoism

 

 

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About John Rogers

In short, I'm a Taiji Quan practitioner looking to generate interest in, and enthusiasm for Taiji in as many people as possible in Montenegro and neighbouring countries.
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